o permit every horse to turn on his own ground, after the Roman fashion, to right, left, or about; but for the attack ranks and files were closed up as tightly as possible, and all other considerations were sacrificed to the maintenance of a compact array. It was said of the French knights who marched with Richard the Lion-Heart that an apple thrown into the midst of them would not have fallen to the ground. We must therefore rid ourselves of the popular 杭州夜生活论坛 notion of the knight as a headlong galloping cavalier. The attack of men-at-arms could not be very rapid unless it were made in disorder; and though it comes strictly under the head of shock-action, the shock was rather that of a ponderous 杭州夜生活百花坊 column moving at a moderate pace than of a light line charging at high speed. By bearing these facts in mind it will be easier to understand the failure of mounted men-at-arms to break a passive square of infantry.
Next after the men-at-arms came a species of cavalry called by the name of pauncenars, which was less fully equipped with defensive armour, but wore the habergeon and was armed with the lance.
Lastly came the light cavalry of the fyrd, originally established to patrol the English coast. These were called hobelars, from the hobbies or ponies which they rode, and 杭州龙凤妃子阁 were 杭州龙凤桑拿按摩论坛 equipped with an iron helmet, a heavily padded doublet (aketon), iron gloves, and a sword.
Turning next to the infantry, there were Welsh spearmen, carrying the weapon which gave them their name, but without defensive armour. Indeed it should 杭州龙凤地图论坛 seem that they were not overburdened with clothes of any kind, for they were every one provided at the King’s expense with a tunic and a mantle, which were by express direction made of
the same material and colour for all. These Welsh spearmen therefore were the first troops in the English service who were dressed in uniform, and they received it first in the year 1337. The colour of their clothing unfortunately remains unknown to us.
Next we come to the peculiar strength of England, the archers. Though a certain number of them seem generally to have been mounted, yet, like the 杭州哪里有不正规spa dragoons of a later day, these rode for the sake of swifter mobility only, and may rightly be reckoned as infantry. As has been already stated, the archers wore no defensive armour except an iron cap, relying on their bows alone. These bows were six 杭州水疗会所是做什么 feet four inches long; the arrows, of varying length but generally described as cloth-yard shafts, were fitted with barb and point of iron and fledged with the feathers of goose or peacock. But the weapon itself would have gone for little without the special training in its use wherein the English excelled. “My father,” says Bishop Latimer (and we may reasonably assume that in such matters there had been little change in a hundred and fifty years), “My father was diligent in teaching me to shoot with the bow; he taught me to draw, to lay my body to the bow, not to draw with strength 杭州男人放松的地方 of arm as other nations do, but with the strength of the body. I had my bows bought me according to my age and strength; as I incre